Element Magnesium

Magnesium ElementIt is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.
Magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body and is essential to all cells and some 300 enzymes.
Magnesium ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia.

Names and Identifiers

Chemical Formula:Mg
Molecular Weight:24.30500 g/mol
EC Number :231-104-6
MDL Number:MFCD00085308
Color:silvery white
Other Names:Magnesio
PubChem CID:5462224
IUPAC Name:Magnesium
Canonical SMILES:[Mg]
ICSC Number:0289

Physical & Chemical Properties

Density:1.738 g/cm³
Boiling Point:1363 K ​(1091 °C, ​1994 °F)
Melting Point:923 K ​(650 °C, ​1202 °F)
Molecular Formula:Mg
Flash Point:500ºC
Exact Mass:23.98500
Symbol:Globally Harmonized System of Classification
Signal Word:Danger
Hazard Statements:H228-H251-H261
Precautionary Statements:P210-P231 + P232-P235 + P410-P422
Hazard Codes:F:Flammable
Risk Phrases:R11;R15
Safety Phrases:S43-S7/8
RIDADR:UN 1418/1869/2950/3264
WGK Germany:1
Packaging Group:III
Hazard Class:4.1

Magnesium has three stable isotopes 24 Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg.
All are present in significant amounts (see table of isotopes above). About 79% of Mg is 24Mg. The isotope 28Mg is radioactive and in the 1950s to 1970s was produced by several nuclear power plants for use in scientific experiments.
This isotope has a relatively short half-life (21 hours) and its use was limited by shipping times.

Naturally occurring isotopes

IsotopeMass/DaNatural abundance (atom %)Nuclear spin (I)Magnetic moment (μ/μN)
24Mg23.9850423 (8)78.99 (4)00
25Mg24.9858374 (8)10.00 (1)5/2-0.85546
26Mg25.9825937 (8)11.01 (3)00

Radiosotope data

IsotopeMass/DaHalf-lifeMode of decayNuclear spinNuclear magnetic moment
22Mg21.9995743.86 sEC to 22Na0
23Mg22.99412411.32 sEC to 23Na3/20.536
27Mg26.9843419.45 mβ to 27Al1/2
28Mg27.98387621.0 hβ to 28Al0
29Mg28.988551.3 sβ to 29Al3/2

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