Element Gadolinium

Gadolinium ElementIt is an element with atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25.
Gadolinium is under investigation in Hypertension, ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY, and Chronic Kidney Disease. Gadolinium has been investigated for the basic science of CAD, Multiple Sclerosis, and Coronary Artery Disease.

Names and Identifiers

Chemical Formula:Gd
Molecular Weight:157.250g/mol
EC Number :231-162-2
MDL Number:MFCD00011022
Other Names:Gadolinio, Gadolíneo
PubChem CID:23982
IUPAC Name:Gadolinium
Canonical SMILES:[Gd]
ICSC Number:n/a

Physical & Chemical Properties

Density:7.90 g/cm³
Boiling Point:3273 K ​(3000 °C, ​5432 °F)
Melting Point:1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
Molecular Formula:Gd
Flash Point:3266°C
Exact Mass:157.924103
Symbol:Globally Harmonized System of Classification
Signal Word:Warning
Hazard Statements:H261
Precautionary Statements:P231 + P232-P422
Hazard Codes:Xi:Irritant;
Risk Phrases:R15
Safety Phrases:SS43-S7/8-S26
RIDADR:UN 3208 4.3/PG 3
WGK Germany:3
Packaging Group:III
Hazard Class:8

Gadolinium has the highest cross section for the capture of thermal neutrons of any element and this is mainly due to the high cross section of Gd-157 (255,000 barn) and Gd-155 (61,000 barn).
Natural Gadolinium is currently used as a burnable poison in nuclear fuel, but the use of Gd-155/157 only has been proposed as this would create an even more effective burnable poison.
Gd-152 is used for the production of radioactive Gd-153 which is used for osteoporosis research and bone density measurements. Gd-160 is used in double beta decay research.

Naturally occurring isotopes

IsotopeMass/DaNatural abundance (atom %)Nuclear spin (I)Magnetic moment (μ/μN)
152Gd151.919786 (4)0.20 (1)0
154Gd153.920861 (4)2.18 (3)0
155Gd154.922618 (4)14.80 (12)3/2-0.2591
156Gd155.922118 (4)20.47 (9)0
157Gd156.923956 (4)15.65 (2)3/2-0.3399
158Gd157.924019 (4)24.84 (7)0
160Gd159.927049 (4)21.86 (19)0

Radiosotope data

IsotopeMass/DaHalf-lifeMode of decayNuclear spinNuclear magnetic moment
146Gd145.9183148.3 dEC to 146Eu0
147Gd146.9190901.588 dEC to 147Eu7/21.0
148Gd147.9181175 yα to 144Sm0
149Gd148.9193399.3 dEC to 149Eu; α to 145Sm7/20.9
150Gd149.918661.8 x 106 yα to 146Sm0
151Gd150.920345124 dEC to 151Eu; α to 147Sm7/20.8
153Gd152.921747241.6 dEC to 153Eu3/20.4
159Gd158.92638518.6 hβ to 159Tb3/2-0.44

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