Element Carbon

Carbon ElementCarbon (from Latin: carbo “coal”) is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6.
It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.
Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen.
Carbon’s abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life.

Names and Identifiers

Chemical Formula:C
Molecular Weight:16.04 g/mol
EC Number :231-153-3
MDL Number:MFCD00133992
Color:black (graphite), transparent/colourless (diamond)
Other Names:Carbone, Carbonio
PubChem CID:297
IUPAC Name:Carbon
Canonical SMILES:[C]
ICSC Number:0702

Physical & Chemical Properties

Density:1.8–2.1 g/cm³
Sublimation point:3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Molecular Formula:C
Flash Point: >230 °F
Exact Mass:16.04
Symbol:Globally Harmonized System of Classification
Signal Word:Warning
Hazard Statements:H228
Precautionary Statements:P210
Hazard Codes:F,Xn,Xi
Risk Phrases:36/37-36/37/38-20-10
Safety Phrases:26-36-24/25-22-36/37
RIDADR:UN 1325 4.1/PG 3
WGK Germany:3
Packaging Group:III
Hazard Class:n/a

Carbon isotopes and mainly C-13 is used extensively in many different applications.
C-13 is used for instance in organic chemistry research, studies into molecular structures, metabolism, food labeling, air pollution and climate change.
C-13 is also used in breath tests to determine the presence of the helicobacter pylori bacteria which causes stomach ulcer.
C-13 can also be used for the production of the radioisotope N-13 which is a PET isotope.
The C-12 atom has been given the atomic weight of exactly 12.000000000 and is used as the basis upon which the atomic weight of other isotopes is determined.

Naturally occurring isotopes

IsotopeMass/DaNatural abundance (atom %)Nuclear spinNuclear magnetic moment
12C12.000 000 0(0)*98.93 (8)00
13C13.003 354 8378(10)1.07 (8)1/20.702411

Radiosotope data

IsotopeMass/DaHalf-lifeMode of decayNuclear spinNuclear magnetic moment
9C9.0310400.127 sEC to 9B; EC + p to 8Be; EC + 2α to 2H3/2
10C10.01685319.3 sEC to 10B0
11C11.01143320.3 mEC to 11B3/2-0.964
14C14.003241982 (27)5715 yβ to 14N0
15C15.0105992.45 sβ to 15N1/21.32
16C16.0147010.75 sβ to 16N
17C17.022580.19 sβ to 17N; β + n to 16N

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